被动语态用法详解及易错点(被动语态课件)

一、 主动语态和被动语态的概念

1)He opened the door. 他开了门。

主动句主语是动作的执行者/发出者

2)The door was opened by him. 门被开了。

被动句主语是动作的承受者

汉语中表示被动的词:被…/ 由…/ 受…/ 给…

英语中表被动用:be+过去分词构成

二、 被动语态的结构及用法

1)被动语态的几种句型

肯定句:主语+be+及物动词的过去分词+(by)

eg: My phone was made in China.

否定句:主语+be not+过去分词+(by)

eg: My phone wasn’t made in China.

一般疑问句:Be+主语+过去分词+(by)?

eg: Was your phone made in China?

特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+be+主语+过去分词+(by)?

eg: Where was your phone made?

2)不同时态中的被动语态

九年级英语被动语态用法详解及易错点

3) 被动语态的用法

当不知道或没有必要指出动作的执行者时,常用被动语态,这时往往不用by短语。The front window in the classroom was broken yesterday.

昨天,教室的前窗被打破了。(不知谁打破的)

They have been poorly paid.

他们的工资太低。(没必要指出工资是谁付的)

突出或强调动作的承受者,如果需要说出动作的执行者,用by短语。

These books are written especially for children.

这些书是专门为孩子们写的。(强调的是“这些书”)

三、主动语态变被动语态

1)一般情况下主动语态变被动语态

主动句:He closed the door.

变被动句:The door was closed by him.

口诀:宾变主,主变宾,谓变be done, 时不变,数格必须随被变。

2)主动语态中若有双宾语

Vivian gave me a book. 双宾语(me是间宾, book是直宾)

I was given a book by Vivian. 间接宾语提前

A book was given to me by Vivian. 直接宾语提前时,要在间接宾语前加介词

动词make/buy/get用for; 动词give/send/lend/take用to

3) “感使动词” (feel, hear, listen to, let, have, make, see, watch, notice, look at)真奇怪,主动结构“to”走开,被动结构又请来,十个动词要记牢,不会被它再难倒。

We saw him play football on the playground.

我们看见他在操场上打篮球。

变被动:He was seen to play football on the playground.

他被我们看到在操场上打篮球。

四、主动形式表被动意义

1) 系动词没有被动语态,如feel, sound, taste, look, become, fall, get, grow, keep, remain, seem, smell, stay, turn等等

Your idea sounds good.

你的注意听起来蛮好的。

You look beautiful.

你看起来美美的。

2) 在need, require, want, be worth , deserve等词的后面,动名词用主动形式表示被动意义

The TV needs repairing. 电视需要修理。

= The TV needs to be repaired.

3) 一般说来,不及物动词或不及物动词短语不能使用被动语态,常见的有:appear, die, disappear, end(vi. 结束), fail, happen, last, lie, sit, spread, stand, break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart, take place,occur等。

A car accident happened in the street.

一场车祸发生在街上。

Great changes have taken place in my hometown.

我的故乡发生了巨变。

4) 在某些形容词后面,当不定式表达的情况与它前面的名词或代词构成逻辑上的动宾关系时,用主动式表示被动意义。

She has an important meeting to attend.

她有一个重要的会议要参加。

五、易错点总结(常考点)

1)在时间、条件状语从句中,要用一般现在时的被动语态表示将来时的被动语态。

If l am given enough time, I will do it better.

给我足够的时间,我会做得更好。

2)固定结构中的介词或副词在被动结构中不可省去。

Such a bad habit should be got rid of.

这样的坏习惯应该改掉。(of 不可以省去的)

3)有些动词如write, read, sell,wash, open等当强调动作执行情况时, 有被动语态; 当用作不及物动词来说明主语本身所具有的特征时,无被动语态。

The computers were sold out, because they sell well.

电脑被卖光了,因为它们卖得好。

The cloth washes easily.

这布很好洗。

4)在“too…to…”结构和形容词 enough to do结构中,通常用主动形式表示被动意义。

The problem is too difficult to work out.

5)常见的被动语态的句型搭配

据说….. It is said that …

据报导.. It is reported that …

据推测….. It is supposed that …

希望…. It is hoped that …

众所周知….. It is well known that …

普遍认为….. It is generally considered that …

有人建议….. It is suggested that

六、【被动语态专项训练】

1. A red sky in the morning _______ to be a sign of bad weather.

A. says B. is saying C. is said D. is being said

2. The book _______ for anyone who wants to learn more about the Internet.

A. is intended B. has intended

C. is intending D. will intend

3. Blood is the medium in which oxygen _______ to all parts of the body.

A. is carried B. has carried

C. is carrying D. will carry

4. If the package _______ well, we assume the contents are also wonderful.

A. is wrapped B. has wrapped

C. is wrapping D. will wrap

5. Both hydrogen and oxygen are elements, but water, which _______ when they combine, is not.

A. is formed B. has formed

C. is forming D. will form

6. The swimmer hung on to the rope and _______ to safety.

A. is pulled B. has pulled

C. was pulled D. was pulling

7. Einstein _______ the Nobel Prize for his contribution to Quantum Theory.

A. is awarded B. has awarded C. was awarded D. was awarding

8. They ought to have arrived at lunchtime but the flight _______.

A. is delayed B. has delayed

C. was delayed D. was delaying

9. The crunch came when she _______ to choose between her marriage and her career.

A. is forced B. has forced C. was forced D. was forcing

10. I _______ to wait four hours before I was examined by a doctor.

A. made B. has made

C. was made D. was making

11. Anyone seen carrying boxes, bags, or whatever, _______ by the police.

A. stopped B. has stopped

C. was stopped D. was stopping

12. I can’t turn a blind eye when someone _______.

A. has robbed B. was robbed

C. was robbing D. is being robbed

13. The dealer will provide you with a courtesy car while your vehicle_______.

A. has repaired B. was repaired

C. is being repaired D. was been repaired

14. The Olympic torch is carried by runners to the place where the games _______.

A. has held B. was held C. are being held D. were been held

15. He apologized to the people who _______.

A. affected B. has affected

C. have been affected

D. had been affected

16. No decision ______ until next year, so you’ll just have to wait and see.

A. have made B. are made

C. will make D. will be made

17. Candidates who are successful in the written test ______ for an interview.

A. have invited B. have been invited

C. will invite D. will be invited

18. There is every chance that more jobs ______ later this year.

A. will lose B. will be lost

C. have lost D. have been lost

19. There’s still a ray of hope that the missing child ______ alive.

A. was found B. have found C. will find D. will be found

20. Full details of the election results ______ in a special edition of tomorrow’s newspaper.

A. will publish B. will be published

C. have published D. have been published

21. No-one knows how many people ______ since the war began.

A. have killed B. have been killed C. killed D. were killed

22. She has written two novels, both of which ______ into television series.

A. have made B. have been made C. had made D. had been made

23. Due to the recent high cost of borrowing, many companies ______ to close.

A. had forced B. had been forced C. have forced D. have been forced

24. Once the goods ______ for they will be delivered at your convenience.

A. have paid B. have been paid

C. will pay D. will been paid

25. At least fifty four people ______ and a further fifty are missing.

A. have killed B. have been killed

C. will kill D. will be killed

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